Explore the expanding role of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of eldercare, with a...
Guide to Fall Prevention In Nursing Homes| Written by: Eunice Yang, PhD.
A Complete Guide to Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes
Fall prevention in nursing homes is not just about ensuring the safety of residents. It’s also about supporting nursing staff with the training and tools needed to provide quality care while minimizing the physical and emotional strain that falls can place on them.
In this comprehensive guide, we’ll discuss critical aspects of fall prevention and provide solutions that nursing homes can implement to unburden nursing teams and enhance the well-being of residents in their facilities.
The Impact of Falls on U.S. Nursing Homes
Falls are increasingly prevalent in nursing homes, with approximately 50% of the 1.6 million residents in U.S. nursing homes experiencing a fall every year. Among those who fall, roughly one-third will experience two or more falls within the same year. These common and costly incidents have far-reaching implications for nursing homes in the United States. In this section, we will examine the impact of falls on residents, staff, and overall facility success.
First and foremost, falls impact the victim. A single fall can result in severe injuries, such as bone fractures and head trauma. Fractures are the most common injuries, with 95% of hip fractures occurring as a result of a fall. Aside from the physical harm, falls often lead to a decline in residents’ overall well-being and quality of life.
Fall-related injuries make it difficult for residents to get around and complete everyday activities independently. The emotional toll can also be significant, as fall victims may experience fear, anxiety, and a loss of confidence in their mobility. As a result, fall victims are more likely to withdraw from social life and have a reduced willingness to engage in activities, further impacting their emotional and mental well-being.
It’s understated how significantly falls impact staff well-being and staff retention in nursing homes. Nursing staff bear the brunt of the physical and emotional stress of falls. When a fall occurs, nurses often become the “second victim,” experiencing increased levels of stress, anxiety, and self-doubt in their caregiving abilities. Falls are also physically demanding. Lifting and assisting fallen residents can lead to injuries among staff, with registered nurses experiencing a higher-than-average rate of occupation-related injuries.
Falls also impose an additional administrative burden. Filing incident reports, documenting the details of the fall, and communicating with family members can consume valuable time and energy, often diverting a nurse's attention from other aspects of resident care.
The increased physical, emotional, and administrative burden can also affect staff satisfaction, with researchers examining the close relationship between resident injuries and rates of job satisfaction among nursing home employees.
The impact of falls in nursing homes goes beyond the immediate consequences for residents and staff. It also affects the facility's overall success, both financially and reputationally.
From a financial perspective, falls are costly. The medical expenses associated with treating fall-related injuries, such as hospitalizations, surgeries, and rehabilitation, can be substantial. Research suggests that the average total cost of a fall is $62,521 per fall, amounting to hundreds of thousands each year for long-term care facilities. Falls may also lead to costly lawsuits and settlements if a fall happens due to negligence or insufficient safety measures.
A nursing facility's quality ratings and reputation closely depend on its capacity to offer residents a safe and caring environment. Frequent falls and lower CMS quality ratings can dissuade healthcare providers and residents from choosing a facility as their care provider.
Recognizing the broader implications of falls underscores the urgency and importance of effective fall prevention in nursing homes. This next section will define fall prevention and its critical role in promoting the safety and well-being of nursing home residents and staff.
What is Fall Prevention?
Fall prevention is a comprehensive approach that includes various prevention strategies and interventions. These proactive measures aim to prevent, mitigate, and reduce the occurrence of falls and their associated consequences.
Fall Prevention Strategies
Fall prevention strategies are well-documented and practiced in nursing homes and long-term care facilities. The most common methods include risk assessments, environmental modification, medication management, staff training, and exercise programs, all designed to safeguard residents against potential falls and fall-related injuries.
Comprehensive fall risk assessments are essential in identifying and mitigating fall risks in nursing homes. These assessments help healthcare professionals pinpoint individuals at higher risk of falling and develop personalized interventions. Assessments consider common fall risk factors, such as muscle strength, balance impairments, vision changes, health conditions, and medications.
Here are some tools and tests typically used for fall risk assessments:
- Tinetti Assessment Tool: evaluates gait and balance through tasks like sitting, standing, and walking, assigning scores to indicate fall risk.
- Berg Balance Scale: Assesses balance and stability with 14 tasks, providing a score between 0 and 4 that indicates a person’s fall risk.
- Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test: Measures mobility and balance by timing activities like standing up and sitting down.
- Morse Fall Scale: a structured assessment considering factors like fall history, secondary diagnoses, walking aids, and mental status.
- Hendrich II Fall Risk Model: a comprehensive assessment that factors in age, mental status, medication use, and mobility, assigning points to determine fall risk.
- STRATIFY: assesses fall risk by considering factors like fall history, new medications, impaired mobility, and cognitive impairment.
It’s important to note that healthcare providers may use different assessments based on their protocols and preferences. Nursing care teams may employ one or more of these assessments to evaluate fall risk and develop individualized care plans for each resident. These plans often include some of the specific prevention measures outlined below.
One of the most effective ways to prevent at-risk residents from falls is ensuring that their living space is safe and free from hazards. Modifications can include removing common tripping hazards like clutter or loose rugs. Facilities can adjust bed or wheelchair-seat heights to accommodate residents' mobility restrictions. Providing residents with assistive devices, such as canes, walkers, and wheelchairs, can also aid in fall prevention.
Medication management is a critical fall prevention strategy. Certain medications, such as sedatives and antipsychotics, can cause dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination, which can lead to an increased risk of falls. It is essential for healthcare providers to regularly review and adjust medications to minimize their potential side effects. Close communication and collaboration between care teams, patients, and families about medication side effects can also significantly reduce medication-related falls and injuries.
Educating staff about fall prevention strategies and best practices is essential for effective fall prevention in nursing homes. Two fundamental approaches to staff education include developing comprehensive fall prevention protocols and implementing staff training programs.
- Fall prevention protocols: prevention protocols outline best practices, guidelines, and procedures for staff to follow in areas such as risk assessment, environmental modifications, resident monitoring, response to falls, and reporting.
- Training programs: regular training sessions can enhance staff knowledge and skills, covering topics like identifying fall risk factors, proper resident handling techniques, and communication strategies.
- Continuing education: facilities can also prioritize continuing education so staff can stay up-to-date on new strategies and changes within the field.
While education and training are important, they do come with their challenges. Staff turnover, time constraints, language and cultural barriers, and resistance to change can make it difficult to implement staff training successfully. To address these challenges, facilities can prioritize cultivating a positive work culture that values ongoing learning and innovation. Facilities should also regularly assess staff fall prevention competency to ensure they meet quality standards.
Exercise and Balance Programs
Encouraging residents to engage in exercises and activities that improve their strength and balance is a proven fall prevention strategy. These programs aim to enhance residents' physical fitness and reduce their vulnerability to falls. Experts broadly recognize exercise training programs as effective interventions, including a 2023 study from Frontiers in Public Health. The study highlights that exercise interventions effectively improve balance and mobility, ultimately reducing falls and fall-related injuries.
Introducing the Next Generation of Fall Prevention: OK2StandUP
It is evident that a proactive approach to fall prevention, as outlined in the strategies above, can significantly contribute to enhanced resident safety in nursing homes. However, while these strategies are essential for long-term prevention, they do not take actionable measures to prevent falls in real-time. Fortunately, innovative AI-powered technology solutions can step in to bridge the gap.
Meet OK2StandUP, the first-of-its-kind fall prevention solution designed to mitigate falls, prevent injuries, and improve the lives of millions of older adults. OK2StandUP complements traditional approaches and offers a simple, cost-effective solution for nursing home staff to stay informed of residents at imminent risk of falling.
OK2StandUP is a discreet, wearable monitor that seamlessly integrates into existing workflows to help organizations prioritize the care of older adults by alerting caregivers to a resident’s intentions to stand up. Here are some of the key features of OK2StandUp:
- Continuous Remote Monitoring: unlike other wearable fall detection devices, OK2StandUP monitors the wearer’s activities 24/7, allowing for an unmatched level of real-time monitoring for caregiving teams.
- Predictive Analytics: by harnessing the power of artificial intelligence, the device can accurately identify when the wearer exhibits physical movements that indicate their intention to stand up from a seated or lying down position.
- Real-Time Alerts: as soon as the device detects physical motions that may lead to a fall, timely alerts are sent to the caregiver so they have enough time to provide help if needed.
- Actionable Insights: in addition to real-time alerts, the device provides insights into daily activity and historical trends to enhance caregiving and fall prevention strategies.
- User-Friendly Technology: the monitor is easy and comfortable to wear, adhering to the wearer's chest with a medical-grade adhesive strip. The accompanying app has a user-friendly interface, making receiving and responding to alerts easy.
A Cost-Benefit Analysis
Implementing any new technology into existing caregiving workflows warrants a thorough cost-benefit analysis. The investment in fall prevention solutions, like OK2StandUP, offers a range of benefits that not only enhance resident safety but also have a positive impact on a facility's bottom line.
- Initial Implementation Costs: while the initial costs are low compared to other fall detection technology solutions, integrating OK2StandUP into a facility’s infrastructure will require an initial investment in wearable devices and staff training.
- Ongoing Maintenance and Support: to ensure optimal performance, facilities may incur costs associated with device maintenance, updates, and technical support.
- Enhanced Resident Well-Being: fewer falls improve the quality of life of residents, as they experience fewer injuries, reduced fear, and increased confidence in their mobility and caregiving teams.
- Reduced Fall-Related Costs: by proactively preventing falls and related injuries, OK2StandUp helps nursing homes avoid costs associated with hospitalization, rehabilitation, and potential litigation.
- Lower Staff Burden: this AI-powered technology significantly reduces the physical and emotional strain on nursing staff, decreasing stress levels and potential injury risks.
- Enhanced Staff Satisfaction and Retention: improved working conditions and reduced stress levels can lead to higher staff satisfaction and lower turnover rates. As a result, facilities save on recruiting, onboarding, and training costs.
- Higher CMS Ratings and Enhance Reputation: a safer facility with fewer fall incidents receives higher ratings on CMS Quality and Safety Measures, which inevitably boosts public confidence in the facility's quality of care delivery.
- Data-Driven Decision Making: OK2StandUP takes fall prevention strategies one step further, bridging the gap in traditional inventions by providing actionable, real-time insights to aid informed decision-making and reduce the caregiving burden.
Implementing OK2StandUP in nursing homes enhances resident safety and offers substantial cost-saving benefits. The brief cost-benefit analysis above demonstrates a significant return on investment, as fewer falls mean reduced healthcare expenses, fewer injuries, and a higher quality of life for residents.
The versatility of OK2StandUP extends to various use cases, from nursing homes to in-home professional care and beyond. Its adaptability ensures that older adults across multiple care settings can benefit from its proactive fall prevention capabilities.
OK2StandUP represents the next generation of fall prevention in nursing homes. By combining the best practices of traditional fall prevention strategies with real-time monitoring and predictive analytics, OK2StandUP empowers care teams to shift from reactive responses to proactive prevention. Contact our team today to learn how OK2StandUP can enhance the lives of both residents and caregivers in your care network.